It is believed that the first people have come to America 11-12 million years ago from continental Asia. They moved to America from Asia across the Bering Bridge – overland isthmus linking the two parts of the world at that time. Probably it was the Siberian hunters, pursuing mammoths and bison. When they reached America, they settled in the eastern and southern directions. Bones and spearheads of ancient American inhabitants were found in the town of Clovis, in the state of New Mexico. However, this still generates controversy. Do these facts confirm the generally accepted version?
In the seventies of the last century, an American anthropologist Tom Dillehay with several Chilean students worked in a swampy forest town of Monte Verde Costa in the south of Chile and found a mastodon, one of the relatives of an elephant, who was extinct already in the post-glacial era. He noticed traces of cuts on these bones, perhaps they were man-made. In subsequent years, the scientist found the stone tools, traces of fires, wooden items processed by the human hand, as well as the remains of the mastodon body and wickerworks. He cleansed the foundation of an extended house, which could accommodate up to fifty people. At some distance from him Dillehay discovered a semicircular foundation of gravel and sand which he had never seen before. The found monuments were dated by 12 500-12 800 years, and that fact impressed the scientist most of all. So, the versions dispersed. Only in 1999, the history of discovery was cleared up. Tom Dillehay admitted that he had falsified his findings.
Meanwhile, unusually earliest traces of human presence were found in Venezuela and in Brazil – arrowheads and rock carvings, aged about 13 thousand years. One of the French archaeologists estimated the age of the stone tools found in the Brazilian town of Pedra Furada in neither more nor less 48 thousand years.
Professor Fisher from New Zealand believes that people came to America between 60 and 30 thousand years ago. Dr. Virginia Steen-Mcintyre, specializing in the study of volcanic deposits, made a sensational discovery: the first people in America appeared about 250 thousand years ago. Such a conclusion was made after studying the volcanic deposits in an alpine valley in a hundred kilometers to the east of Mexico City, capital of Mexico.
The versions differed, but nevertheless, on the basis of numerous studies, scientists have identified several stages of settlement of America:
1. The first people came to America by the land of the Bering Strait and the Aleutian Islands and settled from north to south across the Pacific coast of the continent about 50 thousand years ago.
2. The second wave of emigration took place from 25 to 12 thousand years ago. Almost all the Aborigines of America have their origin from these tribes.
3. About 13 thousand years ago on the Arctic coast of Canada, in Greenland and in the south of Alaska there were new settlers – the ancestors of the Eskimos and Aleuts.
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