It would seem that it is a simple question. Everyone will say that art is architecture, sculpture, painting, music, poetry … In fact, this is how the term is understood by all people. But in architecture there are both simple buildings, which do not constitute the object of art, being visually frankly speaking junk, and very especial constructions – masterpieces. Thus, we can say that everything is relative. So what’s the feature of a work of art?
Some say “Art – an activity that shows the beauty”. The founder of aesthetics Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten said beauty was a conformity, ie the order of parts in mutual relation between each other and their relation to the whole. The aim of beauty was to please and excite desire. The writers Schütz, Sulzer, Mendelssohn and Moritz considered the purpose of art was not beauty, but the good.
Remembering many figures of art, it is possible to combine the main points. All aesthetic definitions of beauty converge to two main views, the first – the beauty is something that exists by itself, one of the manifestations of something absolutely perfect: the idea, the spirit, the will, God; and another – beauty is the pleasure received by us, not having a purpose of personal benefit. European philosophers believe the purpose of the art is in getting pleasure from it, rather than an appointment of it in the life of the man and the mankind.
In order to accurately determine the art, we have to stop looking at it as a means of pleasure and consider it as one of the conditions of human life. Considering the art in this way, we can see that it is a means of communication between people. As the word, that conveys thoughts and experiences, serves as a means of unity of people, the art acts just in the same way. The peculiarity of this means of communication, which distinguishes it from communicating through the words, is in the fact that the word of one person transfers his thoughts to another, the art is used by people to pass their feelings to each other. The activity of art is based on the idea that the person, perceiving the feelings of another person by hearing or through vision, is able to experience the same feeling that is experienced by the person expressing his feelings through some chosen form of art.
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