The idea of gradual and continuous change of all species of plants and animals was expressed by many scientists long before Darwin. Therefore, the very concept of evolution, as a process of long, gradual, slow changes which eventually lead to fundamental, qualitative modifications – the emergence of new organisms, structures, forms and types, has penetrated into science in the late XVIII century. However, it was Darwin who proposed an entirely new hypotheses regarding the living nature, summarizing several separate evolutionary ideas into one, the so-called theory of evolution, which has received the widest distribution in the world.
The essence of Darwin’s theory of evolution can be stated in a few basic theses. All kinds of living creatures that inhabit the Earth have never been created by someone. Having arisen naturally the organic forms were slowly and gradually transformed and improved according to the surrounding conditions. The basis of the conversion of species in nature is composed of such properties of organisms as heredity and variability, and natural selection, constantly occurring in nature. Natural selection is carried out through a complex interaction of organisms with each other and with the factors of inanimate nature. Darwin called these relationships the struggle for existence. The result of the evolution is the adaptation of organisms to the conditions of their habitats and the variety of species in nature.
Of course, usually speaking of Darwin, the first thing we remember is the theory of evolution, that is, the term refers only to the field of biology. But it is not exactly so. In fact, the theory of evolution is not so much a biological concept but a teaching, which has become the basis for the emergence of the ideological system – materialism. This system claims that the basis of all life on the Earth is the matter, and the birth of life was the result of a chain of random coincidences of the concentrations of the inanimate, unconscious matter, thereby denying the existence of the Lord, the Maker of our world in the most perfect form.
The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of Charles Darwin’s Ideologies.