Through the equatorial swamps, the savannah and the desiccated desert, the winding ribbon of the River Nile carries fertility to the land on which one of the greatest civilizations arose. And today the life of these people depends on the Nile. The Nile is one of the largest rivers in the world. Egypt owes its history to this river. The history of this country is so closely intertwined with the history of the Nile that one can even say that the Nile created Egypt.
If there were no life-giving spills of this river, the territory of this country would long ago have turned into a lifeless desert. It is the only river in North Africa that flows through the Sahara and delivers its waters to the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, it can be argued that the Nile is the source of life in an arid desert.
The main feature of this river is the annual spills. By the middle of July, the water began to arrive, reaching its highest level in autumn, when the river flooded huge coastal areas. On this flooded land, the silt, brought by the river from its upper reaches, was deposited. The entire fertile soil of the Nile valley consists of prolific sediments of the river silt. It was easy to handle and it had exceptional fertility.
Due to these peculiarities, the conditions of the Nile valley favored the development of agriculture. Already since the Neolithic, the settlers of the valley possessed the necessary tools for the processing of soft Nile soil. They switched to agricultural production early.
Due to the annual spills, there was a need to create an irrigation system. After all, it was necessary to distribute excess moisture evenly and in a timely manner from the surface of the earth in order to eliminate the lack of water and simultaneously the waterlogging of the soil. Thanks to this, it became possible to accumulate products, more than it was necessary to feed workers. This contributed to the accumulation of wealth and the stratification of society. All these events led to the emergence of the state in the Nile Valley.
Papyrus was no less wealth of the Nile. It was not only the material for making papyrus paper. From the inner crust of the plant people made sails, mattresses, clothes, ropes, and ancient Egyptian priests created shoes; soft parts of the papyrus gave sweet juice. Thanks to the papyrus, writing became widely available, and written signs began to be simplified. Thanks to the annual abundant yields, it became necessary to keep an accounting in the large farms. In addition, the annual spills contributed to the emergence of the astronomy and the calendar. After all, it was necessary to know the dates of the flood of the river, on which the economic well-being of the country depended.
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